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Toyota forklift 2.5 ton weight free.The GB Weekly – 6 May 2022

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Send us toyota forklift 2.5 ton weight free e-mailwe will get back to you. The Toyota Tonero models up to 3. The low truck noise and tiyota, as well as the wide range of cabins contribute to driver comfort. These fast and manoeuvrable models are available with industrial diesel or LPG engines.

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The vehicle has been well maintained. Potential bidders are encouraged to contact William Caruso WCaruso njtransit. Auctions end April 30th 1PM. VALS thru There are twenty three 23 Chevy Caprices for sale listed individually on www.

See listing for all vehicles and mileage. The vehicles have been well maintained. To attend you must fill out the Property Permit form for each attendee at www. APALS thru There are twelve 12 Chevy Caprices for sale listed individually on www. A site visit to view this equipment can be scheduled by contacting: Olya Arakhouskaya via email, OArakhouskaya njtransit.

Additional information please contact Christian Pfuhl at Phone: Contractor Bid Amount Ken Tomasso. The comment period ends with the close of business on April 8, Fully assembled and filled units will be used to raise existing grades adjacent to tracks along active railroad Right of Way in order to provide a stable platform for owner installed equipment on fill material. There are 3 rebuilt compressors and 6 used compressors. See attached spreadsheet for all Thermo-King parts.

For additional information contact Scott Smith at Contractor Bid Amount Railquip Inc. There are 3 rebuilt engines and 2 used engines.

Description Warranty. Seller warrants to the Buyer that the property offered for sale will conform to its description. Any claim for mis-description must be made prior to removal of the property. If Seller confirms that the property does not conform to the description, Seller will keep the property and refund any money paid.

The liability of the seller shall not exceed the actual purchase price of the property. Newark, New Jersey Contractor Bid Amount brian schaefer. To ensure that your comments are received, they may be submitted to fblair njtransit. The comment period ends with the close of business on March 3, To ensure that your comments are received, they may be submitted to BTiam-Fook njtransit.

The comment period ends with the close of business on February 16, For additional equipment information see the attached word document. All the items in this lot are used and the working condition of the equipment is unknown. For questions please contact: Henry Davis, HDavis njtransit. Additional asset information contact Rajwinder Kaur Phone: Up for auction is a lot of used Police Holsters: 1.

Strong Holster for Sig Sauer P 40 cal. Holster has a Double Retention Hood. Quantity: 2. Quantity: 22 3. Holster has a Double Retention.

Quantity: 16 4. Strong Holster for Smith and Wesson 9mm. Holster is a Double Retention Holster. Lot contains both Lefty and Righty. Holsters all in Black Leather. Contractor Bid Amount Vinson Chan. Streamlight Rescue Light. Item Name: Box Light. Base Mounted Search Light with rechargeable base. Quantity: Item Name: Vulcan. LED light. Quantity: 8. Item Name: Survivor. Base Mounted Search Flashlight with rechargeable base.

Quantity: 4. Additional information contact Vanessa Brown Phone: A site visit to view this equipment can be scheduled by contacting: Fred Sack via email, FSack njtransit. William Duncan via email, WDuncan njtransit.

Michael Pio via email, MPio njtransit. For other information contact Christian Pfuhl Phone: Up for auction is a total of 16 various size unused and in very good condition Police Black Leather Gear belts as follows: Gould and Goodrich 2.

Refer to the attached picture of the belts. Up for auction is One 1 Lot of Work Equipment beyond economic repair. These items are for parts or scrap. For other information contact Vanessa Brown Phone: For questions please contact: Brian B. Zavistoski, BZavistoski njtransit. AP, 61 thru The tires are NOT included but can be purchased separately. Payment to GovDeals will be paid when buses are ready to be picked up. Buses need to be pickup within 24 hour of notification.

During this time it could be one bus per day. There is no buyer’s premium added to the check. If not returned during the accepted time frame the check will be cashed and no refund given. The buyer can keep the rims. Any additional information please contact Scott Smith at or ssmith njtransit.

Contractor Bid Amount Mary Osman. Via teleconference call – Dial-in number – Conference ID and press. For additional equipment information see the attached photos. All the items in this lot are considered obsolete and the working condition is unknown. Refer to the media below for pictures of equipment. No site visits to view equipment allowed due to Covid For questions please contact Vincent Nardone: or Rajwinder Kaur at For additional equipment information see the attached excel document.

All the items in this lot are for repair, parts, or scrap. A site visit to view this lot can be scheduled by contacting: Chris Pfuhl via email, Cpfuhl njtransit. The Contractor shall be required to provide training after the successful completion of the new Dynamometer and Start up testing. Proposals Due:Request for Proposal No. Notice is hereby given that NJ TRANSIT intends to enter into a publicly advertised cooperative purchasing agreement for the purchase, installation and consultation of Microsoft teams in 3 conference rooms.

Note that the comment period ends with the close of business on November 2, AP B Contractor Bid Amount Stavola. This is a contract for the removal of scrap on an ongoing basis for a period of one year with NJ TRANSIT reserving the right to extend this contract for a period of one additional year. The winner will supply a 30 yd container for the OTM Other Track Material , and will be notified when pick up is ready.

Item 1 Scrap Rail-5ft plate and structural scrap, estimated quantity , unit GT. Note that the comment period ends with the close of business on October 05, Notice is hereby given that NJ TRANSIT intends to enter into a publicly advertised cooperative purchasing agreement for labor and repairs on equipment covered under the manufactures warranty.

To ensure that your comments are received, they may be submitted to KRWilliams1 njtransit. To ensure thatyour comments are received, they may be submitted to Cperry njtransit.

Thecomment period ends with the close of business on August 11, To ensure that your comments arereceived, they may be submitted to BTiam-Fook njtransit.

For more information please contact Scott Smith Phone: or ssmith njtransit. There is a comment period, which ends on the close of business on July 28, Up for auction is AP One 1 gallon tank, Tank is steel walled.

This tank was used to store antifreeze and was replaced in For more information on this tank, please contact Muslim Hassam, Phone: or mhassam njtransit. To ensure that your comments arereceived, they may be submitted to KRWilliams1 njtransit. For additional information contact Rajwinder Kaur at or RKaur njtransit. Note that the comment period ends with the close of business on July 2, Contractor Bid Amount Mall Chevrolet. COOP Note that the comment period ends with the close of business on June 22, Please Note: there is a fee to place a bid.

The comment period ends with the close of business on June 11, Electronic Only via Bid Express. To make an appointment to view the above materials. For additional information please contact Vanessa Brown at vbrown njtransit. Note that the comment period ends with the close of business on May 27, Up for Auction used radiators.

Please contact Andre Van Drost at to see radiators. Contractor Bid Amount Greggory Taste. Painting Corporation. Email comments to rfranco njtransit. To ensure comments received by end date, submit to rfranco njtransit. Please visit the Bid Express website at www. Tires NOT included. Purchased separately. Buses decommissioned around May1, Pay to GovDeals when buses are ready for pick up. Pickup within 24 hour of notification.

May tow 1 bus per day. No prepwork, no mechanical,except for tow purposes, will be allowed. See attachment for information regarding the tires. To ensure that your comments are received, they may be submitted to dbielicka njtransit or by phone at To ensure that your comments are received, they may be submitted to TSegear njtransit.

The RFEI is available to be downloaded at njtransit. RFEI Responses must be submitted no later than pm, February 28th, , and emailed to: challenge njtransit. Bus is located in North Bergen, NJ They were removed. See attachment for information regarding the Goodyear tires. After materials are loaded, it is the driver’s responsibility to secure the load.

It is the bidder’s responsibility to check on or view items prior to purchase. To see material please contact: Joseph Hudak jhudak njtransit. Tires are NOT included; can be purchased separately. See attachment for info regarding the Goodyear tires. There’re forklifts on premises to load your vehicle.

After materials loaded, it’s driver’s responsibility to secure load. It’s bidder’s responsibility to check or view items prior to purchase. All sales final.

To see material contact: Jim Panagis, jpanagis njtransit. Other info Raj Kaur To ensure that your comments are received, they may be submitted to bgrasso njtransit. There are forklifts on the premises to load your vehicle. After materials are loaded, it’s the driver’s responsibility to secure the load. It’s the bidder’s responsibility to check on or view items prior to purchase. To see material please contact: Rich Soltys Rsoltys njtransit.

Additional info contact Taajussir Lundy For info on this material and to view, please call John Wathan, The 4-hour, no-cost class is offered weekly. More info contact Taajussir Lundy, Contractor Bid Amount Clyde Cameron. For a copy of the Request for Bids ‘RFB’ package containing instructions and deadlines, send an indication of interest via regular mail, fax or email by the close of business on Friday, January 24, RFB package may be made available for download beginning November 1, Note the comment period ends close of business January 21, To ensure your comments are received by the comments period end date, they may be submitted to rfranco njtransit.

Note comment period ends close of business January 21, To ensure comments are received by the end date, they may be submitted to rfranco njtransit. Contractor Bid Amount Korn Ferry.

There are forklifts on the premises for loading your vehicle. Additional info Taajussir Lundy Contractor Bid Amount Timothy Grove.

Proposal due for RFP No. Please include your complete mailing address, business and fax phone numbers. Contractor Bid Amount Guidehouse. Up for auction, Approval AP There are 52 Used bus not rebuilt Rear Differentials.

Estimated total weight lbs. Some are in boxes and some are on wood pallets. They will be sold as is. Additional info contact Scott Smith Contractor Bid Amount Gannett Fleming. They are used parts that came off our bus fleets. All alternators have been disassembled and put into individual boxes. Please contact Andre Van Drost at to see parts.

Additional information contact Scott Smith Date out of service September, Forklifts are on premises to load your vehicle. After materials are loaded, it’s driver’s responsibility to secure the load. It’s bidder’s responsibility to check on or view items prior to purchase. To see material please contact: Jim Panagis jpanagis njtransit. Additional info, Vanessa Brown Contractor Bid Amount Kenneth Sondermann. Date out of service April, Does not include the pump. To see material please contact: Vincent Llacer vllacer njtransit.

Bid Express Fee’s Apply: please go to www. Up for auction Approval AP scrap used bus diesel radiators. Additional information contact Scott Smith at Contractor Bid Amount Matthew Nadeau. To obtain a copy of the Overview Purchase Agreement Program please email your request or interest to: intakeunit njtransit. This item is for parts or scrap. To see material please contact Jim Panagis at JPanagis njtransit. This is the most difficult part of the process, because it is extremely challenging for the marketing staff to limit the number of variants.

Note that this example is an oversimplification. In normal cases, there will be hundreds of build combinations that must be considered. The result will be to select about 20 percent of the variants that will represent 80 percent of the volume. Decide on which of these variants will be sold in each region, and determine the mix of variants by region Table The mix by region will then be used to calculate the volume of each variant by region during the monthly ordering process. This process will be discussed in detail in Chapter 4.

Note that in this example not all regions will decide to order stock for all variants that were preselected by the sales division for the entire national market.

However, they will still be able to make daily order changes or submit special orders for variants that appear on the national list. Finally, take each of these quantities and decide the colors that will be offered in each region and thus the specific quantities by color of each of these variants that is expected to be shipped to each region.

Toyota processes reduce complexity and limit the mix sold within sales regions. The metrics for mix planning are the number of build combinations by region or country by model. Next we will examine how a mathematical model can be used to evaluate various mix planning strategies. In addition, the identity of these SKUs might not be the same from region to region. Thus, staying with the top 80 percent limits the variability seen by the plant; it also reduces inventories at the dealer.

Moreover, it focuses selling effort on a small set of models and thus can drive demand in the right direction. Given these different possible reasons for mix planning, we will focus on one such reason to understand details.

The Appendix will provide a specific example; here we refer to the learning points from that example. Increasing product variety potentially attracts new customer segments to purchase the product and may thus increase the mean demand for the product.

This increase in customer segments, however, may make the specific composition of demand for products in a period less predictable. Such a decrease in predictability may be understood intuitively as arising from the inability to predict the demand process for each customer segment. So the benefit associated with attracting more customers to the product has to be balanced with the increased forecast error for individual products offered.

In such a context, it may be better to offer a narrower range with more predictability. A more limited, more predictable demand stream may then enable a stable supply chain to be created, which offers the opportunity to increase customer value associated with a product.

A key question is, how much of the demand can be retained when variety is decreased? If, instead of 50 percent of the potential being captured, the demand drops to 30 percent, then it is worth considering how profitable this lowered variety is relative to increased variety. What is the fundamental message of this model? Increasing product variety may increase demand forecast error because of difficulties in forecasting demand. It is the difficulty in understanding the composition of customer demand that creates significant forecast error—that is, it is easier to forecast aggregate demand but quite difficult to forecast the variety.

Thus, careful target- ing of customers and choice of product offerings can stabilize the system if the demand is not affected significantly. The trade-off between stability and sales volume has to be made prior to determination of the mix planning strategy. Buyer value is lifted by raising or creating elements the industry never offered. Over time, costs are reduced further as scale economies kick in, as sales volumes increase due to superior value provided.

The company thus decided to use one bottle type for red and one for white wines and offer only two types of each wine, simplify packaging, eliminate promotions, and go after nonwine drinkers with a fruity flavor.

It eliminated all technical jargon from wine bottles and used simple, bright colors. Retail employees were encouraged by its ease of description to recommend it to customers. By eliminating a lot of the wine reputation—building costs faced by traditional wine companies, Casella focused on new tastes that made it easy to purchase, while simultaneously lowering production costs. At the same time, Casella managed to charge more than budget wines while growing the market significantly.

The narrowing of choices and simultaneous raising of satisfaction permitted a significant increase in the volume sold and enabled the company to emerge as the fastest-growing brand in U. In , the company sold more than In the book Conquering Complexity in Your Business,3 Michael George and Stephen Wilson discuss the impact of adding low-volume, less predictable offer- ings mixed with higher-volume products.

If the low-volume products have greater variability relative to the mean, while the high-volume products have a lower vari- ability relative to the mean, then offering all the products when their manufac- ture involves setups can decrease production cycle time efficiency for all products. Process cycle efficiency thus drops for all offerings when low-volume offerings are added in the presence of setup costs.

George and Wilson suggest the need to identify the requisite level of variety that will optimize profitability by trading off the cost impact with revenue consequences of different levels of variety. The key to becoming a successful golf ball manufacturer is to achieve remarkable consistency in the plastic polymer used around the ball.

Because all balls of the same type have to maintain equal performance to enable competition to focus on golfer ability, the company strives to carefully control quality. At the same time, there is the need to offer golf balls for a range of golfer preferences.

Reflection Points How does increased variety hurt a company? When variety is increased while customer service must be maintained, the forecasting of demand and the adjustment of the supply chain become key issues. If this new segment can be predicted and incorporated into existing processes, there is an opportunity to increase profit- ability. However, if the new market segments introduce fickle consumers and confuse existing customer segments, then adding SKUs may increase forecast error substantially, thus significantly increasing supply costs.

Toyota has demonstrated its strength as a learning organization by contin- uously refining its capability to manage vehicle complexity and the model mix sold in each sales region and by spreading these processes across the global organization.

That permits wide availability of offerings among dealers for customers and thus keeps dealer markups low. Those variants account for over 80 percent of the demanded offerings. That improves inventory turns at dealers and reduces days of inventory in the dealer lot. Those choices are adjusted in response to observed sales. Thus, supplier and production quantities are stable in the aggregate.

The push system of allocating cars to dealers enables fast turns and thus low dealer inventories. The thesis of the chapter is that optimal choice of the v4L enables Toyota to increase value. In some instances, Toyota prefers to wait and see if the trends are permanent; for example, Toyota studies trends to see if mix changes are permanent.

Limiting variability where it occurs—at the dock in the case of the Scion, or at the design stage when it comes to limiting variety—makes the system more capable of handling variation. The quantification of the variety and the careful sequencing of planning steps, some top-down and some bottom-up, enables coordination. The goal of mix planning is system-level optimization, where the system includes the customer and the entire supply chain.

Renee A. Mauborgne and W. Michael L. George and Stephen A. Wilson, Conquering Complexity in Your Business. New York: McGraw-Hill, , p. Conquering Complexity, p. It is linked upstream to the mix planning process and downstream to the production scheduling process. The end point of this process is an order for vehicles with full specifications that will be scheduled for production see Chapter 5. To understand the Toyota approach to sales and operations planning, an understanding of which entity in the supply chain submits the vehicle order is necessary.

Simply put, it is not the dealers. At Toyota, the regional offices submit the vehicle orders once each month. Toyota uses a monthly allocation process to allocate the vehicles planned for production to each dealer—in other words, it uses a top-down approach. Many other automobile companies create pro- duction plans from the bottom up; that is, they collect the orders submitted by dealers and then create a production plan.

There are pros and cons to both approaches; however, the top-down approach works well for Toyota because it enables Toyota to ensure that the resulting production plan is stable. Sales and operations planning processes at Toyota are performed in two stages: annual planning and monthly ordering. Annual Planning The objective of the annual planning process is to establish a rolling three-year sales and production forecast.

The process is repeated semiannually so that the forecast is updated based on the latest market and economic conditions. The annual forecast is used throughout the company to project profits, establish cap- ital and operating budgets, evaluate plant and supplier capacity requirements, conduct annual price reviews with suppliers, and influence marketing strategies. The responsibilities of sales are to grasp the market and economic conditions, predict competitive product plans and strategies, and understand new product launches and marketing plans to create a sales forecast for each model for each month and year.

The process is executed over a period of several weeks twice a year. There is a push-pull momentum: sales submits its request for each model by month and year, while manufacturing simultaneously attempts to mix and match the model volumes across the plants.

Typical sales objectives are to remain flexible to respond quickly to market changes and to limit the use of incentives to sell vehicles. Because most plants produce multiple models and many models are produced at multiple plants, numerous scenarios must be considered. Some sig- nificant conflicts may need to be resolved, which results in the push-pull momentum, or the give-and-take exchange, between sales and manufacturing. The collaboration process focuses on adjusting the variables that can be used to bridge the gap.

Note: Most automobile models are produced for about five years before there is a major model change. Sales and Operations Planning 39 One example of collaboration between sales and manufacturing that gener- ated significant benefits occurred at the Toyota plant located in Fremont, California.

The California plant could produce only 20 percent of the Corolla models with sunroofs. The Corolla model was also produced at another Toyota plant near Toronto, Canada, that did not have this constraint. The demand from the West Coast for Corollas with sunroofs was very high. Unfortunately, the California plant could not produce enough vehicles with sunroofs to meet the demand, so some of those vehicles destined for the West Coast had to be produced at the plant in Canada.

The result was an extremely negative impact on vehicle distribution. The vehicle distribution group pre- ferred to ship the Corollas produced in California to dealers west of the Mississippi and the Corollas produced in Canada to the dealers east of the Mississippi.

The reasons are obvious: logistics costs are lower and the time to get the cars from the plant to the dealers is shorter because of the geographic prox- imity of dealer locations to the assembly plant. The dealers located in the West were requesting over 40 percent of the Corollas equipped with sunroofs. The consequence of the inability of the California plant to produce Corollas with sunroofs to meet this high demand was that many cars produced in Canada were shipped across the country to the West Coast and an equal number of Corollas without sunroofs were built in California and shipped back East.

At each annual planning meeting, people from the sales group would argue that this situation was unacceptable and request the California plant to install additional equipment to eliminate this constraint.

The plant management was very cost conscious and would not agree to invest the millions of dollars required to install the equipment. The stalemate continued for several years until there was a detailed analysis done to calculate the profit impact on both sales and the plant.

It was determined that Corollas that were ordered with sunroofs normally were equipped with other higher-profit options.

Thus, the profit margin of the Corollas without sunroofs was significantly less than that of those with sunroofs. It was determined that by increasing the mix of cars with sunroofs built in California from 20 percent to 40 percent, to respond to sales demand, the plant would recover its multi-million-dollar investment in a few months. When the plant manager realized this missed profit opportunity, he quickly agreed to install the neces- sary equipment.

Another example of the types of decisions that are made during the annual planning process is found in a July Toyota press release:1 July 10, —Erlanger, KY—Toyota is responding to changes in consumer demand and improving the production efficiency and stability of its North American operations by adjusting production mix at three plants.

Production is scheduled to begin in late Prius, which will join the Kentucky-built Camry Hybrid as the second Toyota hybrid built in North America, enables Toyota to better respond to increased consumer demand for hybrid vehicles. This is an excellent example of how Toyota has the agility to make major changes in its production schedules in a relatively short time frame.

Component Planning After several weeks of discussions and analysis, the annual plan is finalized by model by plant. Then the focus shifts to determining the ratio of key compo- nents of vehicles.

For example, engines, transmissions, and similar options may have a capacity constraint at the supplier level. One of the complications of planning component volumes is that most components are used by multiple models across multiple plants worldwide. Again, there is a need to run several scenarios to determine how to best balance component plant production plans with the various assembly plants. Creating Buy-In Another important point is that the sales and operations planning process cannot be resolved simply by inputting variables into a computer and getting a mathe- matically accurate result.

Certainly, computers play an important role in calculat- ing the various scenarios; however, the human interaction that takes place over the hours, days, and weeks not only improves the quality of the annual plan but also builds an overall consensus among sales and manufacturing groups that rein- forces teamwork.

This creates an environment to achieve success by motivating all parties to work together to ensure that the annual plan is a commitment for both the sales and manufacturing organizations. Such collaboration is not the normal process in different functional disciplines.

In such cases, there is much more reliance on computer results than on human interaction. So Toyota prefers a combination approach. That is part of the Toyota Way, in which the human-machine combi- nation is often assumed to produce the best possible result.

It is interesting to observe how many Toyota Way principles are demon- strated during the annual planning process. Teamwork and mutual respect are key principles used throughout the planning process. The plan is developed and is used as a basis for day-to-day operations. This results in a closed-loop control that is repeated over and over again. PDCA is also applied to the planning process itself. After each annual planning cycle, a reflection report is prepared to evaluate the process.

This report highlights what went right and what needs improve- ment. The items that need improvement are analyzed further to identify root causes and countermeasures that should be implemented. Capacity Planning Capacity planning consists of two aspects: the internal plant capacity review and the supplier capacity review. Internal Capacity Planning Each assembly plant conducts a periodic review of its production capacity.

The purpose is to calculate the upper and lower limits of its operations rate for each product. The capacity planning activities are performed on an annual or, in some cases, a semiannual basis. However, most major investments to the facil- ities are usually implemented during the next major model change.

For assem- bly plants, the products are the various vehicle models that are produced on each assembly line. For component or unit plants, the products are the components such as engines and transmissions. Using the annual plan volumes as a forecast, each production facility will consider the variables that impact capacity.

A key constraint is how much the operations rate varies by assembly plant. If produc- tion needs to slow down because of slow demand, then temporary work- ers can be reduced. On the other hand, if production needs to be increased, then, most likely, temporary workers would be added initially. If the increase appears to be permanent, then some temporary workers would be converted to full-time employees. Each process must be analyzed to determine the weakest link in the production process.

In other words, even if one could add unlimited numbers of workers, there will be some equipment that would not be able to produce at a higher rate. It could be a machine that is used to install a sunroof, perhaps an additional paint booth might need to be installed, and so on.

Supplier Capacity So that potential weak links in the supply chain can be identified, supplier capacity as well as internal capabilities must be evaluated. Because this is a joint responsibility, purchasing and production control need to work with each sup- plier to identify any constraints that could restrict the supply of a part.

Thus, a result of this capacity planning study is for Toyota to document the upper and lower range of produc- tion for each part and supplier. Proactive steps can be initiated to solve the capacity issue. For example, a supplier could be added if production volume for a part were increasing rapidly. Such a step would provide Toyota with a backup situation in the event its primary supplier has a problem. But there are other reasons that Toyota would consider developing a dual source for some parts.

Some of these considerations are risks because of location of suppliers that could restrict supply e. Thus capacity planning provides a perspective of overall production rate that can be executed across the supply chain. Monthly Order At Toyota there is a monthly global process to receive the sales orders from each sales company from around the world.

That is translated into a production plan for each assembly plant as well as for each Toyota unit plant. The process is an iterative one that ultimately generates a three-month rolling production plan for all Toyota assembly and unit plants worldwide. A joint focus by both sales and manufacturing on the monthly order ensures that all perspectives are balanced and the logic for the decision is clarified. Production Calendar One prerequisite to creating the production plan is to determine the number of production workdays in a production month.

One of the reasons that a produc- tion month is not the same as a calendar month is because some of the processes within manufacturing are based on a weekly cycle. The concept of a production month was implemented so that each month would consist of either four or five complete weeks. Each year, a production calendar is created based on the follow- ing rules: 1. Each week is assigned a sequential number from 1 to Week number 1 is always the week that includes the first production day of the year.

For example, if January 1 is on Wednesday and January 2 is the first workday, then the week will be designated production week 1. Note: In this case, this week will actually include two days of December. Although this breaks the next rule, it is not considered an issue because in the auto industry in the United States the last week of the year is a non- production week.

The month into which each Monday falls is used to determine which weeks are classified into a production month except for January. For example, if April 30 is a Monday, then the entire week is included in the April produc- tion month.

Because there are The production calendar is published prior to the beginning of the calendar year and includes the production week classification as well as company holidays observed by each plant.

Use of a production calen- dar prevents confusion regarding planning across calendar months and preserves the weekly planning process. Production Planning Process Once the production calendar is published, it can be used to create a monthly production order for each plant. In addition, each unit plant creates an operations plan that shows how many engines, transmissions, and other options it can produce.

An example of an operations plan is shown in Table In this example, one week of a month is shown; however, the complete plan would show all weeks in each of the three months that make up the rolling three-month plan. In this example, Monday is a holiday, so work hours are zero. For all other days, standard work hours are 16, because most plants work two 8-hour production shifts. Normally there is some limited amount of overtime that is prescheduled. In this example, it is two hours or one hour per shift per day.

Day-to-day adjustments to the overtime are made just prior to the start of each shift based on operational conditions at the plant. Takt time is a term that refers to the speed of the assem- bly line.

This unit of measure is the amount of time it takes a vehi- cle to move from one station to the next. In this example, a takt time of 60 seconds means that workers assigned to each station along the line have 60 seconds to complete their work. The rate of vehicles Table The percentage of the time that the assembly line is run- ning at the normal production rate is the operations rate. That is usually set at less than percent in a Toyota plant, because Toyota emphasizes quality first.

So all workers are encouraged to stop the line if any prob- lem occurs so that problems can be corrected before the vehicle gets produced.

That measure also ensures that problems that may affect mul- tiple vehicles are identified and corrected early. The operations rate is reduced by the time required to fix the problem. This is calculated as seconds in an hour divided by takt time in seconds 60 times the operations rate. This is calculated as total work hours per day times the number of vehicles per hour.

Most Toyota assembly plants produce multiple vehicle models. Therefore, the ratio of each model as a percent of the total of all models must be determined to create a production volume by model. This is calculated as model ratio times the production volume. As you can see from the sample operations plan Table , all of the com- ponents are variables that can be manipulated to create what-if scenarios that can be evaluated during the negotiation process.

These metrics, or key perform- ance indicators KPIs , are also used on a day-to-day basis to monitor the plant operations. The monthly planning process requires input from all sales and manufac- turing operations worldwide. Each sales company submits its request for pro- duction of each model by month. This information is transmitted to TMC in a file that contains a record for each vehicle, including full specifications.

Although the sales request contains the full vehicle specifications, this initial planning step considers volumes only by model and key components such as engines. The total worldwide demand is compared to the proposed operations plan for each plant. Table shows a sample of how vehicle and engine vol- umes by month are summarized by the global regions. The next step is to balance the sales request with the production operations proposal to determine the optimum sales and operations plan.

Then the produc- tion volume and model mix for each plant is allocated to each of the global sales regions. Total 6 Cyl. For example, in the United States, the allocation is broken down into 12 regions, and in Europe it is allocated across more than 25 countries. The volume by region by model will vary based on performance versus sales objectives for each region. Next we will examine how each region can manipulate the content of its allocated vehicles to match its regional mix.

Final Sales Order Preparation The headquarters for each sales company will aggregate the order of each of its regions and transmit that information to TMC. Sales and Operations Planning 47 The following paragraphs show a scenario that a region would follow to generate its monthly order and forecast. The first step is to analyze the current stock situation in the region.

That is done by counting all stock by build combination as well as by color. In this scenario, color is used as an exam- ple; however, the same process is done for each build combination.

Stock is classified as dealer stock or pipeline stock: dealer stock is owned by the dealer and either is physically at the dealer or will arrive within two to three days; pipeline stock is further divided into in-transit and allocated stock. Allocated stock is production that has been scheduled for a region but has not been built. For this example, we have assumed that the quantity of each of these cate- gories is equal to one month.

Obviously, that figure will vary depending on many factors such as recent demand, in-transit time, and allocation point. Table shows how stock is calculated across the pipeline by each build combination and color. Then the mix of stock is calculated. This example is just showing colors; however, these processes need to be repeated for each build combination and color across all models. Next the stock mix is compared to the target mix. As discussed in Chapter 3, the target mix is determined prior to new model introduction and may be adjusted periodically if market conditions change.

The variance of the actual stock quantity compared to the quantity computed using the target mix ratio is used to make an order adjustment. Those calculations are shown in Table Next the three-month order and forecast is calculated based on the target mix, as shown in Table Note that the adjustment is applied over a three-month period to avoid overreacting to changes in demand Table However, if the regional manager has some additional information that would indicate a more sudden change, he or she may make a decision to override this calculation.

These processes are then repeated for each package or build combination. As was discussed in Chapter 3, each region will limit the number of build combinations ordered for stock to the high-volume sellers. Table shows how the total number of units may be distributed across the four packages for the three-month period. Sales and Operations Planning 49 Table Mix by Package and Color Combination Colors Build Combination Red Black White Silver Green Total Package 1 75 Package 2 50 Package 3 1, Package 4 50 75 50 75 50 Total 3, The order can now be completed by combining the color quantities with the quantities for each package, as shown in Table That step is necessary because manufacturing requires the complete vehicle specification to determine the production schedule and eventually the part orders.

Shown in Table is the final composition of the orders. Each of the four packages is ordered with five different colors. The process just described assumes that there are no unusual conditions that would affect the regional order. Although such normal circumstances may occur on some models for some months, most of the time external conditions will require that the order be modified.

Some of these conditions are special fleet orders, seasonal trends, and special sales promotions. Special Conditions Fleet orders can occur at two levels. The national fleet accounts are managed by the sales headquarters. Each month, allocation to all of the regions is reduced by the amount of the national fleet orders. The fleet order is then submitted by the fleet department.

In addition to these national fleet orders, each region may have local fleet orders. So the region would subtract the number of vehicles from its allocated amount and create special orders based on the unique fleet requirements.

Therefore, the targeted mix would change in a stair step manner to reflect projected seasonal changes. For example, convertibles and sunroofs sell better in spring and summer months. Also, lighter colors are preferred in hotter weather. Special sales promotions also can require that the order be modified.

For example, air-conditioning may be included for free if you purchase a car with a sunroof. Obviously, that would require the normal mix calculation to be overridden to ensure that an adequate supply of cars with sunroofs and air- conditioning is ordered. The point is that a computer system can be programmed to calculate the monthly order if there are no external factors. However, the process requires human intervention to evaluate the computer-generated order and make necessary adjustments.

That usually requires multiple iterations before the order is finalized. A computer making trade-offs might ignore some subtle constraints such as option combinations that are questionable. To move them along, the sales and marketing departments began offering attractive special deals, so green cars started to sell. But nobody had told the manufacturing department about the promotions. It noted the increase in sales, read it as a sign that consumers had started to like green, and ramped up production.

The order is checked to ensure that each region has ordered the correct number for each model. Next the order contents must be checked against the manufacturing con- straints to ensure that there are not any constraints that are exceeded.

For exam- ple, there are several controlled specifications such as engines, transmissions, and wheels that may have upper and lower limits. These limits are based on capac- ity restrictions at Toyota unit plants and key suppliers.

In the event that one or more constraints are exceeded, the order can be modified by prorating the adjustment across all regions or, if necessary, manually making adjustments to selected regions. Keep in mind that even though each region order consists of a package and a color mix that sells best in its particular region, the national aggregate mix will normally be more evenly distributed.

In addition, any change from month to month will be muted. Once the sales order is completed, it is forwarded onto TMC in Japan. TMC aggregates all orders from all sales companies worldwide. Then the sales requests are compared with the production operations plans submitted by each manufac- turing plant. High-level meetings attended by sales and production people are held to resolve the differences between sales requests and production operations plans.

The result is that some last-minute adjustments will be made to ensure that the optimum production order is submitted. That collaboration process is similar to the annual planning process, with one big exception: the time frame to com- plete the negotiations is extremely tight. During the annual planning process, the elapsed time to resolve differences is measured in days or weeks, whereas during the monthly process the order must be finalized within one or two days.

One metric to measure accuracy of the forecast is to compare the final order to the previous forecast and measure percent of change or forecast accuracy for each option. If there are any extreme changes, they should be investigated because they may be an indication of an order error. In many firms, the sales and operations planning process focuses on materials planning constrained by capacity. Detailed accounts of different processes adopted by firms can be obtained from standard books, such as that of Vollmann, Berry, Whybark, and Jacobs.

In addition, some firms might use distribution or sales requirements planning to send shipments from the plant to different regions or warehouses. Limits are placed on the amount of possible increase within, say, three months and for the period three months and beyond. Typically, these plans are reviewed and revised on a monthly basis. The costs considered in production planning are the costs of carrying inventory and changing workforce level, as well as the cost of overtime.

As with the Toyota process, the goal is to determine overall sales rates, production rates, aggregate inventories, and backlogs. As can be discerned from the description, a significant amount of coordina- tion needs to be carried out through meetings. This is an executive-centered activity. These guidelines emphasize the need to consider the impact beyond the immediate functional or firm boundary. Moreover, the performance of the plan and the planning process itself are measured against carefully selected metrics; they are not left to vague or conflicting interpretation.

Capacity planning estimates define the upper and lower production rates across the supply chain. Variability of sales is managed by adjusting sales incen- tives to deliver planned sales. Deviations from plans are made immediately evident by the use of key metrics.

For example, if one of the constraints is exceeded, that fact is highlighted by one of the computer checks and forwarded to a planner to investigate. Methods for taking corrective action are clearly documented. For example, in case of a mismatch between operations and sales plan, the sequence of actions is to first clearly identify the gap and then to consider the potential countermeasures, gain consensus on corrective action, and implement changes. Systemwide considerations are of the utmost importance.

They are made through face-to-face interactions and discussions. Even computer-generated plans are carefully discussed. Manawhenua ki Mohua gifted the name Aorere to the centre and representatives were there to bless the new playground. Speaker Barney Thomas guided the gathering through the protocol, which included karanga and karakia. The new Aorere Playcentre sign was unveiled first, then tamariki were invited to help uncover the gateway panels.

As people moved through the gateways they were encouraged to touch the panels depicting patiki flounder with a manu bird whose significance was explained by Barney. Two manu Since the dissolving of that organisation, the design has been passed on. Robin Slow modernised the artwork using natural earthy tones and by adding in the manu top and bottom.

Rockville woodworker Brian Cooper created the wooden panels the designs were printed on. Naylor Love, the construction company working on. How to beat Str8ts — Like Sudoku, no single number can repeat in any row or column. A straight is a set of numbers with no gaps but can be in any order, eg [4,2,3,5]. Clues in black cells remove that number as an option in that row and column, and are not part of any straight. Glance at the solution to The solutions will be published here in the next issue.

Playground equipment was purchased from Tredsafe, with a grant received from Golden Bay Community Trust. Funding from Pub Charity paid for a new shed. Ministry of Education funding provided, among other things, a boundary realignment between CAS and the Playcentre. CAS principal Hugh Gully expressed enthusiasm.

Both spoke on behalf of the national organisation and congratulated the centre for the commitment and hard work. Kaiako Jessicah Win gave thanks to Manawhenua ki Mohua for gifting the name Aorere to the Playcentre and for their blessing of the playground. She acknowledged the generations of families who have attended the Playcentre over the years. Grandmother Cheryl Win had attended Playcentre there with her three daughters. Now her daughter Steph attends with her own children — Jasper and Bo — and the four had the honour of cutting the ribbon.

A well-earned morning tea was provided for all to enjoy while the tamariki enjoyed their new playground. Enquiries: aorere playcentre. To complete Sudoku, fill the board by entering numbers 1 to 9 such that each row, column and 3×3 box contains every number uniquely. For many strategies, hints and tips, visit www. Friday 13th May , Stableford: 1st M Dixon, 2nd R Heuvel. Best gross: S Lawson. Twos: R Dyce, R Davis. Best gross: E Ward All welcome. Masks required.

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